College of Education and Human Development

Institute of Child Development

Arthur Reynolds

  • Professor

  • Institute of Child Development
    Carmen D. and James R. Campbell Hall
    Room 119
    51 E River Pkwy
    Minneapolis, MN 55455

  • 612-625-4321
Arthur Reynolds

Areas of interest

Early educational interventions, early childhood development, evaluation research, prevention science, and school & family influences on development


PhD, 1989, University of Illinois at Chicago


Early educational interventions, early childhood development, evaluation research, prevention science, and school & family influences on development.


Chicago Longitudinal Study, Midwest Longitudinal Study

Midwest Expansion of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) Education Program

Human Capital Research Collaborative


I study the effects of early childhood intervention on children's development from school entry to early adulthood. I also investigate the family and school influences on children's educational success. Evaluation research and prevention science are key aspects of my projects.

The focal point of my current work is as Director of the Chicago Longitudinal Study, one of the largest and most extensive studies of the effects of early childhood intervention. The project tracks the life-course development of 1,500 children who attended early childhood programs in inner-city Chicago. The main focus is on the effects of the Child-Parent Center program, a school-based intervention from preschool to the early school grades.

This on-going, 26-year project is now in the adult phase. In addition to examining the effects of intervention on education, economic well-being, health, mental health, and family outcomes, our project team is documenting the determinants of child maltreatment, delinquency and crime, educational attainment, and economic well-being. A major aspect of these explanatory studies is understanding the processes by which early childhood experiences affect development into adulthood. With economist Judy Temple, we also conduct cost-benefit analyses. A cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center program has been published up to age 26.

I am interested more broadly in school and family influences on children's development, the evaluation of social programs, prevention science, intervention research, and the determinants of economic and social well-being in early adulthood. I also study how child development and evaluation research affect social policy.

Advising expectations and availability

If you are a prospective graduate student who is interested in working with Dr. Reynolds, click here to review his advising expectations. The document outlines what you can expect from Dr. Reynolds as an advisor/mentor and provides an overview of Dr. Reynold's expectations of students. 

Please note that for the Fall 2024 admissions cycle I am looking to take on new Ph.D. students as their primary advisor. Please reach out to Dr. Reynolds via email if you are interested in learning more.


ResearchGate Profile 

Mondi, C. F., & Reynolds, A. J. (2023). Psychological well-being in early midlife following early childhood intervention. Development and Psychopathology, 35(1), 357-382

Mondi, C. F., Giovanelli, A., Ou, S., & Reynolds, A. J. (2022). Psychiatric and substance use disorders in a predominately low-income, black sample in early midlife. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 148, 332-339.

Reynolds, A. J., Lee, S., Eales, L., Varshney, N. & Smerillo, N. (2022). Parental involvement and engagement in early education contribute to children’s success and well-being. In K.L. Bierman & S.M. Sheriden (Eds.), Family-school partnerships during the early school years. Research on Family-School Partnerships. New York: Springer.

Temple, J.A. Ou, S. & Reynolds, A. J. (2022). Closing Achievement Gaps Through Preschool-to-Third-Grade ProgramsFrontiers in Education, 7.

Vaisarova, J., & Reynolds, A. J. (2022). Is more child-initiated always better? Exploring relations between child-initiated instruction and preschoolers’ school readiness. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability. 34(2), 195-226. access. MLS Data.

Varshney, N., Temple, J., & Reynolds, A. (2022). Early Education and Adult Health: Age 37 Impacts and Economic Benefits of the Child-Parent Center Preschool ProgramJournal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 13(1), 57-90. doi:10.1017/bca.2022.4

Ernst, J. R., & Reynolds, A. J. (2021). Preschool instructional approaches and age 35 health and well-being. Preventive Medicine Reports, 23, 101498.

Giovanelli, A., & Reynolds, A. J. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences in a low-income black cohort: The importance of context. Preventive Medicine, 148, 106557.

Mondi, C. F., Giovanelli, A., & Reynolds, A. J. (2021). Fostering socio-emotional learning through early childhood intervention. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 15(1), 6.

Mondi, C. F., & Reynolds, A. J. (2021). Socio-emotional learning among low-income prekindergartners: The role of individual factors and early intervention. Early Education and Development, 32 (3), 360-384, DOI:

Ou, S., Yoo, S., & Reynolds, A. J. (2021). Educational growth trajectories in adulthood: Findings from an inner-city cohort.  Developmental Psychology, 57(7), 1163–1178.

Reynolds, A. (2021). Child development as social action: Reflections on four underrated contributions of Edward Zigler to science and society. Development and Psychopathology, 33, 466-482. doi:10.1017/S0954579420001777

Reynolds, A. J., Eales, L., Ou, S., Mondi, C. F., & Giovanelli, A. (2021). A Comprehensive, Multisystemic Early Childhood Program and Obesity at Age 37 Years. JAMA Pediatrics. Online supplement.

Reynolds, A. J., Ou, S. Eales, L., Mondi, C. F., & Giovanelli, A. (2021). Assessment of a Comprehensive Early Childhood Education Program and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Midlife. JAMA Network Open, 4(8), e2120752-e2120752.

Reynolds, A. J., Richardson, B. A., & Lee, S. (2021). Preschool and kindergarten impacts of the Midwest expansion of the Child–Parent Centers in the Saint Paul public schools. Developmental Psychology, 57(4), 489–505.

Eales, L., Reynolds, A. J., & Ou, S. (2020). Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Preventive Medicine, 132. The manuscript is now available in PubMed Central (PMC) for public access.

Giovanelli, A., Reynolds, A.J., Mondi, C.F., and Ou, S. (2020). Adverse Childhood Experiences: Mechanisms of risk and resilience in a longitudinal urban cohort. Development and Psychopathology, 32 (4), 1418-1439

Mondi, C. F., Reynolds, A. J., & Richardson, B. A. (2020). Early Childhood Education and Adult Depression: An Attrition Reanalysis With Inverse Propensity Score Weighting. Evaluation Review, 44(5-6): 379-409.

Ou, S., Mondi, C. F., Yoo, S., Park, K., Warren, B. & Reynolds, A. J. (2020). Thirty years later: Locating and interviewing participants of the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 51, 1-13. The manuscript is now available in PubMed Central (PMC) for public access.

Varshney, N., Lee, S., Temple, J. A., & Reynolds, A. J. (2020). Does early childhood education enhance parental school involvement in second grade?: Evidence from Midwest Child-Parent Center Program. Children and Youth Services Review, 117, 105317.

Reynolds, A. J., & Candee, A. J. (2019). Dimensionality and Predictive validity of the Classroom Learning Activities Checklist in Prekindergarten. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 31, 381-407. doi:10.1007/s11092-019-09306-7

Reynolds, A. J. Margo, S. W., Ou, S. & Eales, L. (2019). Are Parent Involvement and School Quality Associated with Adult Smoking Behaviors? Findings from an Urban Early Childhood Cohort. Preventive Medicine, 127.

Reynolds, A. J., Ou, S., Mondi, C. F., & Giovanelli, A. (2019). Reducing poverty and inequality through preschool-to-third-grade prevention services. American Psychologist, 74(6), 653-672. The manuscript is now available in PubMed Central (PMC) for public access.

Ou, S. Arteaga, I. Reynolds, A.J. (2019). Dosage Effects in the Child-Parent Center PreK-to-3rd Grade Program: A Re-Analysis in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Children and Youth Services Review, 101, 285-298. The manuscript is now available in PubMed Central (PMC) for public access.

Reynolds, A. J. (2019). The Power of P-3 School Reform. Phi Delta Kappan 100(6), 27-33.

Reynolds, A. J., Ou, S. & Temple, J.A. (2018). A multi-component, Preschool-to-3rd grade Preventive intervention and educational attainment at age 35. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(3), 247-256.

Smerillo, N.E., Reynolds, A.J., Temple, J.A. & Ou, S. (2018). Chronic absences, eighth grade achievement, and high school attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Journal of School Psychology, 67, 163-178.

Mondi, C., Reynolds, A. J. & Ou, S. (2017). Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in Emerging Adulthood in a Low-Income Urban Cohort. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 50,45-59.

Reynolds, A. J. Hayakawa, M., Ou, S., Mondi, C. F., Englund, M. M., Candee, A. J. & Smerillo, N. E. (2017) Scaling and Sustaining an Effective Early Childhood Intervention through School-Family-University Collaboration. Child Development. 88(5), 1453-1465.

Reynolds, A. J., Ou, S., Mondi, C. F. & Hayakawa, M. (2017). Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being. Child Development, 88(2), 378-387.

Richardson, B. A., Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., & Smerillo, N. E. (2017). School readiness in the Midwest Child-Parent Center Expansion: A propensity score analysis of year 1 impacts. Children and Youth Services Review, 79 (Supplement C), 620-630. doi:

Chesmore, A. A., Ou, S. & Reynolds, A. J. (2016). Childhood Placement in Special Education and Adult Well-Being. Journal of Special Education, 50(2), 109-120.

Giovanelli, A. Reynolds, A. J., Mondi, C. F. & Ou, S. (2016). Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Well-Being in a Low-Income, Urban Cohort. Pediatrics, 137 (4).

Hayakawa, M., Giovanelli, A., Englund, M., & Reynolds, A. J. (2016). Not just academics: Paths of longitudinal effects from Parent Involvement to Substance Abuse in Emerging Adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(4), 433-439.

Reynolds, A. J., & Ou, S. (2016). Generative mechanisms in early childhood interventions: A confirmatory research framework for prevention. Prevention Science, 17(7), 794-805.

Reynolds, A. J., Richardson, B., Hayakawa, C. M., Englund, M. M., & Ou, S. (2016). Multi-Site Expansion of an Early Childhood Intervention and School Readiness. Pediatrics. 2016;138(1):e20154587. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-4587.

Chan, W., Ou, S. & Reynolds, A. J. (2014). Adolescent Civic Engagement and Adult Outcomes: An Examination among Urban Racial Minorities.  Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(11), 1829-1843.

Arteaga, I., Humpage, S., Reynolds, A.J. & Temple, J.A. (2014). One Year of Preschool or Two–Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers, Economics of Education Review, 40, 221-237.

Herbers, J. E., Reynolds, A. J., & Chen, C. (2013). School mobility and developmental outcomes in young adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 25, 501-515.

Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J., & Reynolds, A. J. (2013). Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37 (11), 917-925.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S., Arteaga, I. A. & White, B. (2011). School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups. Science 333, 360-364, 15 July 2011 DOI: 10.1126/science.1203618.

Reynolds, A. J. Temple, J. A., White, B., Ou, S. & Robertson, D. L. (2011). Age-26 cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Center early education program. Child Development, 82(1), 379-404.

Reynolds, A. J. & Ou, S. (2011). Paths of effects from preschool to adult well-being: A confirmatory analysis of the Child-Parent Center Program. Child Development, 82 (2), 555-582.

Reynolds, A. J., Magnuson, K. & Ou, S. (2010). Preschool-to-third grade programs and practices: A review of research. Children and Youth Services Review, 32(8), 1121-1131.

Reynolds, A. J., Rolnick, A. J., Englund, M., & Temple, J. (Eds.). (2010). Childhood programs and practices in the first decade of life: A human capital integration. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A. & Ou, S. (2010). Preschool education, educational attainment, and crime prevention: Contributions of cognitive and non-cognitive skills. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 1054-1063.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A. & White, B. A. (2009). Cost-effective early childhood development programs: A synthesis of evidence in the first decade of life. Encyclopedia of Education.

Reynolds, A. J., Mathieson, L. C., & Topitzes, J. W. (2009). Do early childhood interventions prevent child maltreatment? A review of research. Child Maltreatment, 14(2), 182-206.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., Ou, S., Robertson, D. L., Mersky, J. P., Topitzes, J. W., & Niles, M. D. (2007). Effects  of a school-based early childhood intervention on adult health and well-being: A 19-year follow-up of low-income families. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(8), 730-739.


Reynolds, A. J., & Temple, J. A. (Eds.) (2019). Sustaining early childhood learning gains : program, school, and family influences. Cambridge; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Reynolds, A. J., Temple, J. A., & Rolnick, A. J. (Eds.). (2014). Health and education in early childhood: Predictors, interventions, and policies,. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reynolds, A. J. (2012). Success in early intervention: The Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press (Reprinted from 2000).